Paper – I

Education in Emerging India




The paper will enable the teacher trainee . . .


§  To enable the teacher trainee to understand the philosophical and sociological bases of education.

§  To understand the basic principles of various schools of philosophy and educational implications.

§  To understand the contributions of great Indian and Western thinkers on education.

§  To enable the teacher trainee to understand the process of socialization and agencies of socialization.

§  To understand the role of education in

§  Transmission and preservation of culture

§  Process of social change

§  Modernization

§  To acquaint the teacher trainee to the problems, issues of Indian Education.

§  To sensitize the teacher trainees towards the promotion of National Integration, International understanding, Peace and Co-operation. 

§  To understand the implications of global issues and emerging trends in Indian education.

§  To actively participate in the protection of environment and to inculcate the values of environmental education.

§  To provide awareness on Adolescence education and life skills.

§  To understand the relationship between state and education.

§  To become acquainted with global issues.

§  To sensitize the teacher trainees towards the Quality improvement of school Education.

§  To understand the importance and need of value oriented education for inculcation of moral behavior.


                                                                                                                                                    Paper - I

Education in Emerging India


Unit - I : Education- meaning,  Aims, Functions and Types of Education.                                               

1.1    Nature, Scope and Meaning of Education (Broader & Narrower               )                  

1.2    Definitions of Education, (Indian and Western context)

1.3    Philosophical, Sociological, political, economic, scientific and technological aims of 

        Education (Kothari Commission, NPE’86 NCF.2005)

1.4    Functions of Education - General and specific.

1.5    Types of Education - Formal, informal& Bi-polar Tri-polar processes of education.

Unit - II- Schools of Philosophy

          2.1  Meaning and definitions of Philosophy, main branches of philosophy - Epistemology, Axiology and Metaphysics.

2.2    Relationship between Education and Philosophy.

2.3    Schools of thought

2.3.1. Idealism                           Meaning, Tenets, Aims, Curriculum

2.3.2. Realism                            Teacher, Discipline, and Critical Assessment.      

2.3.3. Naturalism                      Methods of Teaching & Discipline

2.3.4. Pragmatism                   

2.3.5. Eclecticism - Eclectic tendency in Education-meaning, need and consensus among philosophies.

Unit - III - Contribution of Indian and Western thinkers on Education.                                                                                                          

            Swami Vivekananda, M.K. Gandhi  Rabindranath Tagore, S. Radha Krishnan, J.Krishna Murthy, Aurobindo, Gijubhai, John Dewey, Rousseau, Frobel, Pestalozi, Montessori.( philosophy of life, Basic principles of Education , Aims of Education , Curriculum, Methods of Teaching, Teacher, Child  & Discipline).

Unit - IV - Education & Sociology                                                                                    


4.1 Meaning and definitions of Sociology

4.2 Nature and scope of Educational Sociology.

4.3 Aims and objectives of Educational Sociology.

4.4 Need and importance of Educational Sociology for a teacher.

4.5 Educational Sociology and Curriculum.

Unit - V - Culture, Socialization, Modernization and Value oriented Education

5.1. Culture

5.1.1 Meaning and characteristics of culture.

5.1.2 Cultural growth and development - Cultural Lag.

5.1.3 Indian Culture and Heritage.

5.1.4 Education and Culture in Indian context.

5.1.5 Urbanization, Technology and Culture.

5.2 Socialization

5.2.1 Meaning and concept of Socialization.

5.2.2 Role of Education in the process of Socialization.

5.2.3 Role of Home, School, Peer group and Mass media in the process of Socialization.

5.3 Modernization

5.4 Value Oriented Education

5.4.1 Concept and Definition of Values

5.4.2 Types of Values

5.4.3 Universal Values and Personal Values

5.4.4 Methods, Approaches, Educational activities and materials used to inculcate Values.

5.4.5 Education for Moral Development

5.4.6 Life skills linked with Moral Values

5.4.7 Evaluation of Values 

Unit - VI-Agencies of Education                                                                                                                          

6.1         Meaning, concept, definition of an Agency.

6.2         Home, Society, N.G.Os, Mass media (Print & Electronic Media), School and Peer group.


Unit - VII - Contemporary scene and Emerging                                                   

   Future in India                                                                                                              

7.1         Indian society - its broad social and political characteristics.

7.2         Human rights, Child rights, Right to Information Act - 2005.

7.3         Role of education in Social Change and Modernization.

7.4         Socio-economic inequalities - Equal educational opportunities - Gender Bias.


Unit - VIII-Global issues in Education                                                                            


8.1 Globalization.

8.2 Liberalization and Education.

8.3 Privatization, Migration and Education.

8.4 Environmental Education and National Green Crops.

8.5 Adolescence Education – Life Skills.

8.6 National Integration, International understanding and Peace Education.

8.7 Youth unrest and unemployment – causes, remedies and influence on education. 

Practicum / Assignments

(i)            Study the Socio - Economic conditions and Educational need of the people in the School / Locality.


(ii)          Study the Formal School and Alternative Schools.


(iii)         Problems of Disadvantaged Groups.

(iv)        Study of different Agencies of Education like Family, N.G.Os, Print and Electronic Media and Peer group.


(v)          A study of different Culture in the locality.

(vi)        Political and social consciousness among different sections of population on Human Rights - Child labour.


(vii)       Study the participatory level of the parents and community in social service activities like tree plantation, sanitation, population growth, Life Skills etc.


(viii)     Collection of Information on applications received as per Right to Information Act and action taken by the concerned (Mandal / District)


(ix)        Collection of information on Disaster Management and prepare Photo Album paper cutting.


(x)          Identify few value / areas in the school curriculum during internship.


(xi)        Study the textbooks of mother tongue and EVS-I of any class and identify value oriented concepts.    


Record:Working with Community”

                Record should be allotted to paper - 1 faculty member.

This record should be submitted at the end of first year only.

                Marks allotted to this record: 25 Marks.

Distribution of Periods

Education in Emerging India


Sl. No.

Unit. No.

Name of the Unit

Periods in hours



Education, Meaning, Aims, Functions and types of Education




Schools of Philosophy




Contribution of Indian and Western thinkers on Education




Education & sociology




Culture, Socialization, Modernization and Value oriented Education




Agencies of Education




Contemporary Scene and Emerging future in  India




Global Issues in Education




Seminars, Co-curricular activities and revision


Total periods

135 periods



v  Theory and principles of Education - J.C. Agarwal.

v  Educational thought - V.R. Taneja.

v  Principles of Education - K. K. Bhatia.

v  Education in India. J. Mohanty.

v  Philosophical and Sociological foundations of education - S.K.Murthy.

v  Teacher & Education in Emerging Indian Society - NCERT.

v  Vardhamana Bharatiya Samajamulo Upadhyadu (Published Telugu Academy)

v  Vidya - Samaja Sahstramu - By E.V. Ratnaiah (Published Telugu Academy)

v  Udyaminchuchunna Bharatdesharmulo Vidya Upadyudu - By  P. Ramachandra Pillai (Published Telugu Academy)

v  Foundation of Education - B.N. Das

v  Teacher and Education in India Society - A.S.Rama Krishna.

v  Vidya Tatvika samajika Bhoomikalu - Telugu Academy

v  Theory and Principles of Education - Bhatia & Bhatia.

v  Current issues in education - J.Mohanty.

v  Human values and Education - S.P. Ruhela.

v  The new Education policy in India - T.D. Shukla.

v  Challenges in Indian Education - S. Lakshmi.

v  National Curriculum Framework - 2005

v  Right to Information Act 2005    - GOI






This paper will enable the teacher trainee to:

§  Understand the role of Educational Psychology in studying a child through various methods.

§  Understand various aspects of the process of Growth and Development of Child Develop the ability to attend to the developmental needs and problems of the child.

§  Understand the nature and process of Learning and apply Learning Principles in the classroom situation.

§  Gain knowledge of the children with Special Needs.

§  Gain an insight of the nature of Individual Differences among children its importance in dealing with children to.

§  Develop skills of Guidance and Counseling to attend the needs and problems of children.

§  Understand the factors influencing personality and promoting mental health

§  Acquire the knowledge in Statistics and Action Research and to utilize them in educational situations.

§  Develop skills of Psychological Testing.







Unit - I: Introduction                                                                                                                                          

1.1    Psychology-Meaning, Definition and Schools of Psychology.

1.2    Educational Psychology - Meaning, Nature and Scope.

1.3    Relevance of Educational Psychology for an elementary school teacher.

1.4      Methods of Psychology - Introspection, Observation, Experimental, Interview and      Case study.

Unit – II: Growth and Development                                                 

2.1    Concept of Growth, Development and Maturation.

2.2    Principles of Development

2.3       Determinants of Growth, Development and Maturation - Heredity and Environment

2.4      Stages of Development- Pre – natal, Infancy, Child hood, Puberty and Adolescence with reference to Physical, Mental, Emotional, Social, Moral and Language development

2.5    Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development.

2.6    Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development.

Unit – III: Learning                                                                              

3.1    Learning – Meaning and Definition

3.2      Determinants of Learning-Readiness, Maturation, Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and achievement motivation) Needs.

3.3  Theories of Learning and their educational implications - Classical and Operant   Conditioning, Trial and Error learning Insightful Learning, Social Learning theory (Bandura) and Bruner’s Theory of Instruction

3.4    Concept formation -role of teacher in promoting concept formation.

3.5    Transfer of Learning –Definition and Types.

3.6      Memory and Forgetting – Definition, Types, Factors effecting forgetting and helping    retention.

Unit – IV: Learners with Special Needs                                       

4.1    Special Education – Nature, Scope & Definition

4.2      Inclusive Education Meaning and Scope           

4.3   Mentally handicapped (Mild, Moderate)

4.4   Gifted / Talented 

4.5   Learning Disabled.

4.6   Visually impaired

4.7   Hearing impaired.

4.8   Orthopaedically handicapped

4.9   Disadvantaged Children

Unit – V: Individual Differences                                                       

5.1     Individual Differences – Meaning of Intra-individual and Inter-individual differences.

5.2     Individual differences in respect of :

5.2.1      Intelligence –Meaning, Definition, Testing – IQ, Classification, types of tests,   Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Quotient (E.Q)

5.2.2      Aptitude – Meaning, Definition, identification and its significance

5.2.3      Creativity- Meaning, Characteristics of a Creative child, Creative Process

5.3          Role of teacher, school and home in catering to individual differences.

Unit – VI: Personality & Mental Health                                                                

6.1  Personality –Meaning, Nature, Definition and Factors influencing development of          Personality.

6.2    Development of Interests and Attitudes.

6.3      Assessment of Personality - Non Projective (Rating Scales, Inventories) Projective Techniques - Rorschach Inkblot test, TAT, CAT.

6.4  Mental Health - Definition and Characteristics.

6.5  Adjustment, Maladjustment and Defense Mechanisms.

6.6  Stress and Stress Management.

6.7 Group dynamics and Leadership

Unit – VII: Guidance and Counseling                                               

7.1      Guidance – Definition, Types (Educational, Vocational & Personal)

7.2      Counseling - Definition, Types (Directive, Non –directive, Eclectic)

7.3      Need and Importance of Guidance and Counseling 


Unit –VIII - Statistics and Action Research                                     

8.1      Importance of Statistics in Education.

8.2      Data collection and Tabulation

8.3      Graphic Representation.

8.4      Measures of Central tendency.

8.5      Measures of Variability.

8.6      Rank Correlation.

8.7      Normal Probability Curve and its Characteristics.

8.8      Action Research




Suggested Experiments:


Ø  At least 5 experiments covering one experiment from each area.

i. Learning:

·         Span of Attention

·         Habit Interference Test

·         Mirror Drawing Test

ii. Intelligence

·         RPM (Raven’s Progressive Matrices)

·         Draw a Man Test

·         Bhatia’s Battery of Intelligence

·         WAIS / WISC

iii. Aptitude

·         DAT

·         Teaching Aptitude Test Battery

iv. Creativity

·         Passi Test of Creativity

v. Personality & Mental Health

·         CAT

·         Sociometry

·         Bells Adjustment Inventory

Suggested Activities for Projects


Ø  Preparation of Child Profile.

Ø  Action Research

Ø  Preparation of Check List/ Questionnaire / Rating Scale / Inventory.         

Ø  Conduct of an Interest/Aptitude test on the students and offering guidance   accordingly

Distribution of Periods




Unit No.

Name of the Unit

Number of periods to be allotted







Growth and Development








Learners with Special Needs




Individual Differences and Intelligence




Personality and Mental Health




Guidance and Counseling




Statistics and Action Research




Activities and Experiments in Psychology








Reference Books:

v  Aggarwal, J. C.: Essential Education Psychology,(Vikas Publishing house Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)

v  Kakkar S.B. : Educational Psychology & guidance - The Indian Publication, Hill Road, Ambala Cantt.

v  Educational Psychology  – Dr. S.K. Mangal

v  Advanced Educational  Psychology - K.P. Pandey

v  Psychological Foundations of Education – W. N. Dandekar

v  Psychology for Elementary School Teacher -NCERT

v  Advanced Educational Psychology - Uday Shankar

v  Statistics in Psychology and Education – H.E. Garrett

v  Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education – Dr. Bipin Asthanan & Dr. R.N. Agarwal.

v  Psychology Textbook – Class IX & XII – NCERT

v  Vidya Mano Vignana Shastram – D.Ed. & D.Ed. – Telugu Academy

v  Child Development – Elizabeth Hurlock

v  Advanced Educatiional Psychology – Dandapani

v  Exceptional children – K.C. Panda


 Paper - III





The paper will enable the teacher trainee to...

§  Know the Historical Background of developments and changes brought in Elementary Education.

§  Know District, State and National level bodies related to Elementary Education.

§  Understand about School Management and organization

§  Develop knowledge related to teaching learning strategies.

§   Expose techniques of  continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCA) including Grading system

§  Know the approaches and the concepts of curricular construction.

§  Acquaint him with School - community relationship.

§  Under stand the role of supervision and inspection in elementary education.

§  Know about the schemes, work done by the National level, State level, District level bodies towards teacher empowerment.

§  Become aware of his duties and functions through professional code of conduct for teachers

Paper - III






1.1        Indigenous system of Elementary Education in India - Historical perspective. pre and post independence.

1.2        Recommendations of various committees and commissions Secondary Education Commission, Kothari commission, Iswari Bhai Patel Committee NPE- ‘1986 and POA 92,   Rama Murthy Committee, Janardhan Reddy Committee,   Yashpal Committee and NCF-2005.

1.3        Objectives of Elementary Education- Primary, Upper Primary.




2.1 National Level:

2.1.1     Ministry of Education (MHRD)


2.2 State level:

                2.2.1 Ministry of School Education

                2.2.2 Directorate of School Education

                2.2.3 Board of Secondary Education

                2.2.4 SCERT - SSA - SIET- SRC – SIEMAT

2.3 District Level:

2.3.1 District Education Administration - DEO, Dy. E.O(ZP), DPO (SSA)

2.4 Mandal Level / Cluster Level

2.4.1 Mandal  Resource Center -MRC,

2.4.2 School Complex

2.5 School Management and Organization:

2.5.1 The School and its functions.

2.5.2 Maintenance and up keeping.

2.5.3 Headmaster - Role and responsibility – PTA.

2.5.4    Maintenance of records and Registers – SIMS.

2.5.5   Resource Management - Community involvement & Community Amendment Act - 2006, School Grant, Teacher Grant, School Maintenance grant.

2.5.6.     Factors affecting teacher’s performance.

2.5.7      Teacher Preparation.

2.5.8      Time Table.

2.5.9      Monitoring attendance.

2.5.10    School grading.

Unit - III: PLANNING PROCESS IN EDUCATION                      

3.1       Concept of planning

3.2       Micro Level, Decentralized planning, Macro level Planning & School Mapping

3.2.1 School plant - meaning, site, area, design and dimensions.

3.2.2 Institutional Planning - Meaning Scope, Steps, Characteristics, - School   Calendar.


3.2.3 Evaluation of Institutional Planning  

Unit – IV: CURRICULUM                PLANNING AND                                               

                  CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

4.1          Concept of curriculum - Principles and Types of Curriculum. Principles of  

            Curriculum Construction

4.2          Approaches to Curriculum planning.

4.3          National Curriculum frame work with special reference to NPE 1986 and NCF 2005.

4.4          Curriculum in Andhra Pradesh at Elementary level.


5.1       Concepts of teaching learning process

5.1.1          Micro teaching, Co-operative learning

5.1.2          Elements of teaching learning process

5.1.3          Principles and maxims of teaching             

5.2               Participatory approach

5.2.1          Communication skills

5.2.2          Group dynamics

5.2.3          Participatory rural approach (PRA)

5.2.4          Lerner centered activity based approaches

5.2.5          Competency based teaching

5.2.6          Classroom management - single grade, multi grade, multilevel.

5.2.7          Display techniques

5.2.8          Role play

Unit –VI: EVALUATION PROCESS                                             

6.1 Concept of measurement and evaluation.

6.2 Continuous and comprehensive evaluation.

6.3 Types of evaluation

6.3.1      Summative - formative

6.3.2.     Diagnostic

6.3.3      Programme evaluation

6.4  Achievement test - Essay type, Short type and Objective Type

6.5 Student records

6.5.1 Cumulative records

6.5.2  Progress reports, grading system, class school, School Grading



7.1          Traditional and Modern view of School

7.2          School as a miniature of society

7.3          Ways and means of improving of school community relationship

7.4          New Act, Oct, -2006(School Management Committee) Education funds – PTA, Mothers Association, Old Students Association.

7.5          Professional organization of teachers

7.6          Linkage with NGOs, Corporate Institutions / NRIs, Convergence with other     Depts. such as Health, Women & child Welfare, Social Welfare, Minority Welfare, Disabled welfare and Panchayath Departments.




      8.1   Teacher Empowerment - Meaning, factors effecting teacher empowerment.

      8.2      Interventions for Improvement

8.2.1 In-service training programmes such as SOPT OBB, APPEP, DPEP, SSA, CCRT, APSHP, ETV, readiness programmes, Residential Schools, TV  lessons, Radio    Lessons, Teleconferencing.

8.2.2 Role of the teachers in ensuring the objectives of education, schemes and      interventions

8.2.3. In-service teacher education - need – Scope - teacher participation, follow up work.

8.2.4           Organization and institutions for promoting quality in teacher education - NCTE, NCERT, CIET, CIEFL, SCERT, SIET, SRC, RIE, DIET, MRC, School Complex, providing competency based, commitment oriented and performance oriented teacher education.


8.3      Professional code of conduct for teachers


8.3.1        Teacher in ancient India

8.3.2          Qualities of a good teacher

8.3.3          Accountability

8.4      Teacher Motivation

8.4.1        Factors affecting teacher motivation like intrinsic, extrinsic.

8.4.2          Salary job security, opportunities for professional growth, such as an exposure   visit, conducting studies, publications attending seminars, workshops.

8.4.3          Teacher Awards.

8.5   Concept of Inspection and Supervision

8.5.1        Types of Inspection and Supervision

·         Corrective type

·         Preventive type and

·         Creative type

8.5.2        Objectives of Supervision.

8.5.3          Techniques of Supervision.

8.5.4          Supervision of School Plant.

8.5.5          Head Teacher and Teacher Relationship.

8.5.6          Monitoring and Supervision of School Complex.

Practicum /Assignments:

     (i)            Study of School Records of School, recording observation and reporting

   (ii)            Collection of information on SIMS and interpreting for a period of quarter.

 (iii)            Collection of Attendance particulars and interpretation

 (iv)            Planning Classroom Management

   (v)            Recording the progress of any five children with cumulative records in a school over a period of 3 months (during internship)

 (vi)            Survey of school age population of habitation

1.       Identifying dropouts

2.       Un enrolled children

3.       Analyze the reasons for non-enrolment and dropout

(vii)            Study of the school plant taking two schools under different managements.

(viii)            Preparation of an Institutional plan based on the needs and resources of an institutions

 (ix)            Study of the text book taking one subject from class III to VII and identifying the core elements of National Curriculum Framework (NCF - 2005)

   (x)            Study of School Complex and its effective functioning.

 (xi)            Study of MRC & School Complex.

(xii)            Survey on teacher empowerment collecting of opinions of teachers on prescribed format and analyze.

(xiii)            Preparing report on the conduct of any one of the in-service teacher training programme organized in the institutions.


Records:  School Activities

The teacher trainee during two years of training shall re-enroll at least two un-enrolled children / dropout due to various reasons.  The trainee shall constantly keep in touch with parents, school committee /MTA/NGOs for effective retention of these children.  The trainee should identify two adult illiterate and literates them, bring them and into post literacy stage of continuing education.  This is compulsory mandatory activity necessarily assessed and monitored by the DRU faculty shall work in collaboration with PSTE faculty of DIET.  For this field activity internally the trainees shall be assessed for 40 marks. 




Elementary, Education, Planning, Management and Teacher Functions.






Name of the unit

Periods in Hours



Elementary education




Management in Elementary Education




Planning process in Education




Planning of curriculum conceptual frame work




Teaching learning of strategies and skills




Evaluation process




School Community Relationship




Teacher Empowerment , Supervision and Inspection




Seminar, Co-Curriculum activities and revision





Reference Books:-

v  The Indian year Book on Education – Elementary Education –NCERT.

v  History of Education in India – B.D. Basu.

v  Educational Administration – L.D. Gupta.

v  Elementary Education a promise to keep J.P. Naik.

v  Development and planning of modern educations JC. Aggarwal.

v  The Principles and methods of teaching – Bhatia & Bhatia.

v  Planning for Academic Excellence – Shanth Swarup Gupta.

v  Principles of Teaching Tara Chand Anmol Publications.

v  Elementary School Curriculum perspective in curriculum development
SR. Vasthist. 

v  National Policy on Education , 1986- NCERT.

v  School Organization and Management – Mohiuddin and Dr Sidda Lingaiah.

v  Participatory approaches to teacher training VD Rusty P. Datin.

v  Teachers and teaching in the developing world new York.

v  Education since 1800 Ivor Morrigh London Grorge Allen and Unwin ltd.

v  Management skills in primary schools Routledge- UK.

v  Development and  maintains of school feticide concept New Delhi – Kapoor M.M and K. Premi (1988).

v  Professional enculturation (1984) –Innovative experiments in teaching and training book work of India- New Delhi.

v  Multimodal of teaching for educators – Vikas publishing house.

v  Child centered education for learning with out body – Arrora GL(1995)- Krishna publication   co.- Gurgoan – Hariyana.


Paper - IV



The subject will enable the teacher trainee to …

§  Understand the constitutional provisions, problems faced in achieving U.E.E and alternative approaches adopted by AP in achieving U.E.E.

§  Know the importance of Pre-primary Education as a basis for U.E.E.

§  Understand the role of Educational Technology in making the pupils to understand the concepts easily.

§  To enable the teacher trainee to identify the special needs children.

§  To know the importance of Inclusive Education for children with Special Needs.

§  To enhance the skills of the trainee in dealing with the children with special needs.

§  To know the acts, policies, provisions for Children with special needs.


Paper - IV

Perspectives Primary Education and Inclusive Education



1.1         Constitutional provisions, important articles and their educational implications for General and disabled population.

1.1.1          DENOs cascade model of Educational Placements for CWSN in Inclusive programmes.

1.2      Universalization of Elementary Education

1.2.1   Child rights - Acts.

1.2.2      Factors influencing Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)  with respect to General and Disabled Population

Ø  Access –

§  In terms of proximity gender and socially backward children, minorities, physically challenged, Programmes to equate deprived children.

§  Barrier Free Environment (BFE): from Biwako Millennium Frame Work and BFE manual by CCD, New Delhi

Ø  Enrolment - Reasons for non-enrolment, probable strategies from educational and social point of view, gross enrolment and net enrolment.  Role of Community / Parents / Teachers in achieving 100% achievement.

Ø  Retention - Problems of dropouts, wastages and stagnation in school and class room as center of attraction for children.   Influence / role of school on retention.  Transition rates. Role of parents, school and teachers in retaining the children.

Ø  Achievement - Reasons for under achievement, strategies for enhancing achievement levels.         

1.3      Adult Education –Social Education Concept Meaning, Scope, Strategies for mobilization, Total literacy campaign. World summits such as Jomithian and Daker, Historical perspectives.  Basic philosophy, center based approach and volunteer based approach, Androgogy, post Literacy programme - need - Scope – Problems, continuing education -Need - Scope - Bapuji Vignana Kendra, situational analysis - Problems & Strategies for effective implementation.  Role and Responsibilities - State - Dist - Mandal & village level functionaries.


1.4      Alternative Strategies for achieving UEE (AP context).


Ø   Schemes and programmes to achieve UEE – OBB, APPEP, DPEP, SSA, Janashala, NPEGEL, Mid Day Meals, Free Text Books, School readiness programmes, Residential Schools.

Ø   RBCs, Special RBCs, NRBCs, NCLP Schools, Alternative Schools, KGBVs, Banjara Vigna Kendras, RPRP Schools (Velugu Schools).

Ø   Open schools – AP open schools and National Institute of open schooling.

Ø   Non-formal Education system.

Ø   Role of NGOS.

Ø   Role of Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), National Institutes and organizations serving the disabled population.



2.1 Innovative Educational Programmes in India

2.1.1   Hoshangabad Science Teaching programme & EKALAVYA (Madhya Pradesh)

2.1.2   Mirambika elementary Teacher Education programme (Gujarath)

2.1.3   “The Anveshana experience”

2.1.4   “Lok Jambush” Rajasthan

2.2      Meaning of Pre-primary Education, its nature need and scope.

2.2.1      Aims and objectives of pre-primary Education.

2.2.2      Pre-School as a link for primary stage.

2.2.3      Importance of pre-school for school readiness personal & social readiness.

2.2.4      Psychomotor readiness -Academic readiness, reading, writing and numeracy skills, Socio-Cultural influence on development of children.

2.2.5      Involvement of community in early childhood education and role of mothers, SHGs (Self Help groups).

2.2.6      Existing pre-primary education centers CAWC/ECE, Organization and monitoring.

2.2.7      Report developed by Indian Association for pre –school education. (IAPE)

2.3      Teaching Methods of ECE

2.3.1  Significance of play-way methods for development of pre-academic skills (pre-reading, pre-writing and number) emotional and social development, physical and motor development, Montessori model, kindergarten model, plagetian approach, joyful - learning - TLM for pre-primary.

2.3.2      Ata- Pata- Mata- Katha- Srujanathmaka Kruthyalu.

UNIT - III - EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY                                              

3.1      Meaning of Educational Technology Hardware and software - aspects of       educational technology, Edgar Dale cone of experiences.

3.2      A.V. Aids- classification, Projected Aids and Non-Projected Aids, Film Strips, Slides, Pictures, OHP, Photographs, Flash Cards, Cartoons, Maps, Charts, Posters, Models, Specimens and objects, CDs, Animations, Educational Broad Costing, Radio (Vindaam - Nerchukundaam).

3.3      Organization of TV/Radio Lessons.

3.4      Script writing for TV Lessons / Radio Lessons (principles).

3.5      Teleconference, Video Conference and Mana T.V.

3.6      Operational Techniques of AV equipment such as LCD, PA System, Digital Camera Etc.





4.1           Conceptual Clarification and Definition, Prevalence, Myths & Facts:

4.1.1          Conceptual clarification and Definition

4.1.2          Prevalence

4.1.3          Myths and Facts

4.2           Characteristics, Classification & Types

4.2.1          Characteristics

4.2.2          Classification

4.2.3          Types

4.3           Importance of Early Identification and assessment

4.3.1          Importance of Early Identification

4.3.2          Assessment of Mental Retardation

4.4           Planning Inclusive Education

4.4.1          Definition of Inclusive Education (IE), Models of IE, Components of IE

4.4.2          Planning – Onsite assessment of resources, Team Collaboration, Time table preparation, and Planning an IEP & Curriculum adaptation (Formulation of Goals, Objectives and Lesson plans), review and evaluation time lines

4.5           Programming and Classroom Management in IE

4.5.1          Teaching Principles and Stages in concept learning

4.5.2          Implementation of IEP in IE (Implementation of Lesson-plans to achieve Goals).

4.5.3          Teaching Strategies in IE (Individualized Approach, Small group Instruction, Inclusive teaching strategies, Peer Tutoring, Co-operative Learning, Reinforcement, Least Restrictive Environment, Barrier Free Environment).

4.5.4          Behaviour management (Principles of Behaviour Management, Types of Behaviour Problems, Techniques for managing, Behaviour problem).

4.6           Evaluation, Documentation and Record Maintenance

4.6.1          Formative and Summative Assessment Recording

4.6.2          Introduction to IEP Proforma suitable in IE

4.6.3          Case – History & Report Writing

4.7           Psycho-Social management

4.7.1          Working with Families

4.7.2          Working with Siblings

4.8           Awareness & Sensitization Strategies

4.8.1          Promoting Inclusive climate in school and neighbourhood

4.8.2          Awareness strategies for Community, Peer Group and Collaterals (Street Play, Puppet Shows, Disability awareness Games, Films, Lecture and Discussion mode and Brainstorming sessions).



5.1 Introduction

                5.1.1 Conceptual clarification & definition

                5.1.2 Prevalence / magnitude of the problem

                5.1.3 Myths & facts about LD

                5.1.4 Etiology / Causes

5.2 Characteristics & types

                5.2.1 Characteristics / Signs & symptoms

                5.2.2 Types / classification in learning disabilities

5.3 Early identification & Assessment

                5.3.1 Need for early identification

                5.3.2 Assessment procedures

5.4 Inclusive Education Planning & Programming

                5.4.1 Approaches to remedial Planning & Programming for SLD

5.5 Class room organization & Management

                5.5.1 Individualized education planning (IEP)

                5.5.2 Teaching & Learning material

5.6 Evaluation & Documentation

                5.6.1 Evaluation techniques

                5.6.2 Documentation procedure (Record keeping)

5.7 Psycho – Social Management

                5.7.1 Working with parents, siblings teachers & community

5.8 ADHD – Concept, signs & symptoms, effective teaching strategies

5.9 Autism – Concept, Signs & Symptoms, Effective teaching strategies



                6.1 Introduction

                                6.1.1 Structure of hearing mechanism

                                6.1.2 Hearing loss

                                6.1.3 Prevalence / Magnitude of the problems

                6.2 Classification

                                6.2.1 Etiology / Causes

                                6.2.2 Characteristics / Signs & Symptoms

                6.3 Early identification and Assessment

                                6.3.1 Need for early identification

                                6.3.2 Early warning signs of hearing loss

                                6.3.3 Check list to identify hearing loss

                                6.3.4 Assessment procedure – Audiometry

                6.4 Inclusive Education Planning & Programming

                                6.4.1 Rehabilitation process

                                6.4.2 Aids and appliances for the hearing impaired

                                6.4.3 Care and maintenance of hearing aid Ear mould

                                6.4.4 Ear Mould

                                6.4.5 Approaches to remedial planning and teaching

                6.5 Class room management & Organization

                                6.5.1 Environmental modifications

                                6.5.2 Teaching strategies and methods

                                6.5.3 Pre-instruction considerations

                                6.5.4 Curriculum modifications

                                6.5.5 Activities for IEP

                6.6 Evaluation & Documentation

                                6.6.1 Evaluation & Documentation techniques

                                6.6.2 Documentation procedure (Record keeping)

                6.7 Psycho-Social Management

                                6.7.1 Working with parents, siblings teachers & community



                7.1 Introduction

                                7.1.1 Meaning and Definition

                                7.1.2 Prevlance

                                7.1.3 Myths

                                7.1.4 Preventions

                7.2 Characteristics, Classification / Categories and Types

                                7.2.1 Characteristics

                                7.2.2 Classification / Categories and Types

                7.3 Identification Process

                7.4 Inclusive Education, Planning and Programming

                7.5 Classroom Management and Organization

                7.6 Evaluation and Record Maintenance

                7.7 Psycho Social Management – Working with families, siblings and peer groups

                7.8 Sensitization about guidelines for promotion and appropriate educational





                8.1 Conceptual clarification and definition

                                8.1.1 Causes

                                8.1.2 Facts

                8.2 Characteristics

                                8.2.1 Classification

                8.3 Importance of Early identification

                                8.3.1 Assessment of Baseline

                8.4 Planning Inclusive Education

                8.5 Classroom Management

                8.6 Evaluation

                8.7 Working with Families

                8.8 Promotion and Placements



                9.1 Multiple Disabilities – Definition and Magnitude of the problem

                9.2 Characteristics

                                9.2.1 Causes

                                9.2.2 Classification

                9.3 Early Identification

                                9.3.1 Assessment of Base line

                9.4 Inclusive Education Planning and Programming

                9.5 Classroom Management and Organization

                9.6 Evaluation, Documentation and Record Maintenance

                9.7 Psychosocial Management working with Families, Siblings and Peer group

                9.8 Educational Placement


           (i)            Study the socio - economic conditions and Educational need of the people in the school / locality, home visits.

         (ii)            Study the participatory level of the parents, Self help groups and community in the, Life Skills etc.

       (iii)            Collect data of Mandal from MEO and workout gross enrolment and net enrolment ratios village wise.

       (iv)            A comparative study on the academic growth of children in a primary school with and without pre-school education.

         (v)            Submit report on perceptions of children over a Radio/ETV lessons and comment.

       (vi)            Prepare and submit two slides for slide projectors three dimensional models.

     (vii)            A study on the effects of educational intervention taking any of the follow up:

1.             OBB material

2.             ETV programmes

3.             Mid-day RICE

4.             Social Welfare Hostels


Practical work for children with Special Needs


1. Orientation (Observational visit)                          -              3 Hours

2. Case Assessment                                                        -              5 Hours

3. IEP Planning and programming                              -              10 Hours

4. Evaluation and Documentation                             -              2 Hours

5. Working with Community and Family -              3 Hours

6. Seminar / Case Conference                                    -              2 Hours                                               


Total Practical Hours                                                       25 Hours


Note:- The practical work for each particular disability is for 25 Hours.  Therefore, the class needs to be divided into 6 groups and each group is to be allotted to work with one Particular disability of the six groups included i.e., MR, LD, HI, VI, NM or MD.  At the end of the year the groups should exchange information through seminar presentations





Sl. No.

Unit No.

Name of the Unit

Periods in Hours



 Education for all




Innovative Educational Programmes In India   




Educational Technology




 Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Mental Retardation                  




Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Learning Disabilities (LD)




Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Hearing Impairment




Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Visual Impairment




Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Neuromuscular Disabilities And Locomotor Disabilities




Inclusive Education - Children with Special Needs   - Multiple Disabilities  (Syndromes)




Practicals, Seminars, Workshops, Projects and Other Practical work





Reference Books:-

v  Early childhood education creative learning activities Day. Barbara (1983) - New york mcmillan publishing co .inc

v  Early childhood education foundation & practice, grewarl J.S.(1984) - Agra National psychological co- operation

v  Introduction to early childhood . Hilderbrand V. (1971) - London collier mc millan ITD.

v  Learning without Burdern MHRD (1993) - Report of the National advisory committee New Delhi

v  Exploring child – Hand book for pre- primary teacher Khonruth (1972) -Orient Longman New Delhi

§  Perfectives in per-school education Ram Das G. BhatkaThakkar Aruna (1980) -Bombay popular Prakasam

v  Leaning Activities for the young pre- schools child, Watrin Rita

v  Play Dreams imitation of the child Piaget J.

v  The psychology of the child Piaget J& Inhelder B

v  Theories of child development Baladwin A.L.

v  New perspectives in mental Retar Dations. S. Battacharya

v  Psychological disorder in young children.  Dutta Ray

v  The practice of teaching Harper Kenneth and Bill Bennett.

v  The National of development of a child guide for parents teachers students Bowlay Agatta   II

v  Pre- school education to day double day & co., ING garden          – Hechniger

v  The great educators Rusk

v  Child development – Hurlock elizebeth

v  Child psychology – Jersily A.J.

v  The International Encyclopedia of Educational Technology            - Evaut .M

v  Das. J.P. (1998). Dyslexia & Reading difficulties. India:MDA

v  Hallahan, D.P., Kauffman, J.M. and Lioyd, J.W. (1985).  Introduction to Learning Disabilities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice – Hall.

v  Kirk, S.A. (1962). Education Exceptional Children. Bostong: Houghton, Mifflirt.

v  Karanth .P and Rozario.Joe (2003). Learning disabilities in India : Willing the Mind to Learn N.D:Sage.

v  Lerner, J.W. (1976). Children with Learning Disabilities (2nd ed.).  Boston: Houghton Mifflin

v  Pandy. M (2003) Learning Disabilities in primary school children. ND. Amolpub

v  Wallace, G. & Kauffman, J.M. (1978). Educational Assessment of Learning Problems: (2nd ed.), Columbus, Ohio : Charles E. Merrill.

v  Hallahan, D., & Cruickshaank, W. (1973). Psycho – educational Foundation of Learning disabilities. NJ: Prentice Hall.

v  Johnson, D. & Mykelbust (1967),. Learning Disabilities: Educational Principles & Practicies NY: Grune & Stratton

v  Nakra, O. (1997), Children & Learning Disabilities. ND: Allied Publishers

v  Raja Bela (2006)


 Paper – V


Part A

 Computer Education                                                       -           1st Year




The paper will enable the teacher trainee. . .

§    To understand the Computer Concepts.

§    To understand the basic functionalities of the Computer, its advantages and disadvantages, Parts of Computer and various Storage devices.

§    To understand the Working principle of Computer.

§    To understand and use Windows XP

§    To Paint brush, to draw and edit pictures.

§    To learn Microsoft Power Point and create presentations.

§    To understand the need of Microsoft Word and use to create documents.

§    To explore Internet and browse websites and create E-mail Ids.

§    To learn the usage of Spread sheets using Microsoft Excel and create statements using Formulas and functions.

§    To create 2D and 3D charts using Microsoft Excel.

§    To introduce Multimedia and to help students prepare Multimedia presentations.

§    To develop an ability to use Multimedia presentations for classroom teaching.


Unit :I Computer Concepts.                                                                       


1.1         What is a computer? Benefits and Limitations of Computers

1.2         What makes up a PC? Input Devices, Output devices, Input / Output devices (LAN Card) processing devices (Sound Card, Microprocessor)

1.3         Using Paint, What is paint, Starting Paint, Components of the paint Interface? Drawing, Editing of pictures.


Unit –II: Creating a simple presentation with PowerPoint  

2.1         Basic Power Point Starting PowerPoint Interface

2.2         Components of a Presentation

2.3         Creating a presentation

2.4         Applying Design Templates

2.5         Changing the Background of the Slides

2.6         Changing the Colour Scheme

2.7         Creating Slides with other layouts, the 2-column Text Slide, the text and Clip Art Slide.

2.8         Viewing a Presentation

2.9         Running and Closing a Presentation

2.10      Text and List Appearance

2.11      Manipulating Slides

2.12      Working with Objects

2.13      Printing Slides, Notes and Handouts.


Unit - III Introduction to Microsoft Windows XP              

3.1                  Software and Data

3.2                  The Windows Desktop

3.3                  Working with windows

3.4                  Using the Start Menu

3.5                  Using Applications in Windows

3.6                  Working with Disks, Drives and Folders, Selecting files and folders copying and moving files and folders.

Unit-IV: An overview of Networking     

4.1                  What is a Network?

4.2                  Types of a Network, Local area network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wide Area Network.


Unit-V: Introduction to the Internet                                      

5.1         What is the Internet? Social History of the Internet in India Advantage of the Internet

5.2         Connecting to the Internet

5.3         Web Addresses of URLs, Introduction to Internet Explore browsing the internet.

5.4         Exploring the Web with Internet Explorer

5.5         Searching the Web

5.6         Communication with E-Mail, understanding E-Mail

5.6.1    Characteristics of Internet E-Mail Address

5.6.2    Characteristics of Internet E-Mail Messages

5.6.3    Using Hotmail for Internet E-mail.


Unit - VI: Creating a Simple Document in Microsoft Word

6.1         What is a Word Processor

6.2         Starting Word

6.2.1    The word Interface Creating a New Document

6.3         Working in word

6.4         Working with a Document

6.5         Editing Text

6.5.1    Moving Text, Undoing and Redoing Actions Copying Text

6.5.2    Formatting Text                Changing the Font                Changing the Size, Style and colour                Changing Case                Changing Bulleted and Numbered lists

6.6         Formatting Paragraphs

6.6.1    Aligning Paragraphs, Applying paragraph Styles

6.7         Finalizing a Document

6.7.1    Inserting the Date and Time

6.7.2    Inserting and Deleting /comments

6.7.3    Inserting Clip Art

6.7.4    Adding Headers and Footers

6.8         Creating a Table

6.8.1    What is a Table?

6.8.2    Creating a New Table

6.8.3    Entering Text in a Table

6.8.4    Adding Rows to a Table, inserting Rows and Columns.

Unit – VII: Creating a Simple Worksheet with Microsoft Excel

7.1         What is Excel?

7.1.1    What is a Spreadsheet?

7.1.2    Spreadsheet Terms

7.2         Starting Excel

7.2.1    The Excel Interface

7.2.2    Creating a New Workbook

7.2.3    Entering Data

7.3         Working in Excel

7.3.1    Navigating Worksheet

7.3.2    Selecting Cells

7.3.3    Inserting Rows and Columns

7.3.4    Creating a Series

7.4         Working with a worksheet

7.4.1    Changing the page setup

7.4.2    Adding Headers and Footers

7.4.3    Repeating Row or Column Labels across Pages

7.5         Editing Worksheets

7.5.1    Copying and Moving Labels and Values

7.6         Working with Data in Microsoft Excel

7.6.1    Entering a Formula

7.6.2    Using Cell References in a formula

7.6.3    Editing a Formula, Copying a Formula, Moving a Formula

7.7               Functions

7.7.1    Entering a Function

7.7.2    Significance of Cell Range in a function

7.7.3    Editing a Function

7.8               Manipulating Data

7.8.1    Sorting Data, Filtering Data, Creating Subtotals

7.9               Creating Simple Charts

7.9.1    The Chart Wizard

Unit -VIII: Working with Multimedia                                             

8.1          What is Multimedia?     

8.1.1              Benefits of Multimedia

8.1.2              Playing and Organizing Multimedia with Microsoft Windows Media Player.

Practicum / Assignments

(i)            Create a folder structure to store all your school related files under drive D using Windows Explorer. [Ref : Microsoft Project Shiksha Courseware chapter 6 Self Practice 6.1.1. page No 110].

(ii)          Draw the different stage involved in the development of an embryo. [ Ref : Microsoft Project Shiksha Courseware Chapter 8 Self Practice 8.2.1 Page No: 181].

(iii)         Draw the diagram of our National Flag and National Flower using MS Paint.

(iv)        Create a presentation on “Computers” using MS Power Point and save the presentation as Computers. [Ref : Microsoft Project Shiksha Courseware Chapter12 Self Practice 12.1.1 Page no: 263].

(v)          Prepare a presentation about your recent school visit made by you.  Include photos and documents in the presentation.

(vi)        Create a notice to be given to all the students about the forthcoming annual celebration to be held at the school using MS Word.

(vii)       Prepare a letter inviting the parents for PTA meeting to be held at your school using MS Word.

(viii)     Prepare a Lesson Plan for one of the subject you teach using tables.

(ix)        Create a document and type the following :

(a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab

Zn + 2NaOH à Na2 ZnO2 + H2

238 ­U 92   à  234 Th 90   + 4 He 2

(x)          Prepare Time table for your class using MS Word.  Save the file as Time table.

(xi)        Prepare the Marks list for the students of your class, calculate the total and award grades for each student using MS Excel.

(xii)       Create a workbook to record the timetable of your class.  Add the label TIME TABLE FOR CLASS. Use a series to enter the days of the week and the period numbers.  Save the workbook as Time table in your folder.

(xiii)     Start Internet Explorer and open the website http://www.indianchild .com and then click the Flag of India and view it, go back and then click on optical illusions and follow the links in the page and record your observations. [Ref : Microsoft Project Shiksha Courseware Chapter25. Page No 644].

(xiv)     Open Internet Explorer and view the website and note down the contact details Ministers / Department Heads of School education of Andhra Pradesh.

(xv)      Start Sound Recorder, record your voice using microphone, save the recorded sound as a .wav file and then play the file using the sound recorder. Record the steps involved in the above exercise. [Ref : Microsoft Project Shiksha Courseware Chapter7 Page No 150]


Distribution of Periods

Computer Education



Unit No.

Name of the Unit

Number of periods to be allotted



Computer Concepts




Creating a Simple presentation with MS Power Point




Introduction to Microsoft Windows XP




An overview of Networking




Introduction to the Internet




Creating a Simple Document in Microsoft Word




Creating a Simple Worksheet with Microsoft Excel




Working with Multimedia




Total periods

55 periods


Record :

Record work called as ISAP (Information Search Analysis Project) should be given to Teacher trainees from the syllabus. Students understanding, use of computer knowledge and skills will be tested comprehensively.

This record should be submitted at the end of First Year only.

Marks allotted to this record : 50 Marks


o   Microsoft Project Shiksha courseware










Part B


The paper will enable the teacher trainee to ….

  • Understand the aims and objectives of health & physical education.
  • Develop healthy habits personal cleanliness, attitudes, skills of different sports & games.
  • Encourage mass participation in sports & games.
  • Develop total personality.

§  Help the students in developing the leadership qualities and formation of social attitudes.

  • Educate the child about his physique.
  • Prevent the mal nutrition and suggesting the balanced diet.
  • Develop sportsman spirit.
  • Inculcate the habit of healthy living.


I. Health Education Theory 1st year.

1.1              Meaning of Health 

1.2              Nature and scope of Health Education.

1.3              Concept of health education

1.4              Need of health education programmes.

1.5              School health programme, health habits – personal Cleanliness – environmental Cleanliness – food and nutrition – Balanced Diet.

1.6              Safety education- pollution – water noise etc.

1.7              Communicable diseases- transmission – symptoms-prevention and control – First Aid. 


II. Physical Education


2.1 Meaning, nature, scope, Definitions of physical Education- integrated

2.2      Aims & objectives of physical Education – need for physical educational programmes.

2.3      Foundations of physical education – Biological – Philosophical – Sociological – Psychological.

2.4      Modern concepts of physical Education Organization of intramurals and sports day celebrations.

2.5      Yoga & Posture – Ideal Posture - concept of Yoga Education - Nature, scope, importance of Yoga in School Curriculum sitting postures (Padmasan Yogic Mudras, Sukhasana) - lying postures (Shavasan, Sarvangasan, Shalabasan, Pranayama - breathing exercises.

2.6      Major games- Kabaddi, Volley Ball, Khokho, Athtetics - Origin and history of the games - Court marking - Rules & Regulations of each game.

2.7      Practical for major games.


III. Organization of Recreational game activities.

3.1      Recreation - Definitions

3.2      Meaning Nature and need for recreational programmes

3.3      Organization of the minor games Imitation of frog, elephant, crow, dog, train, car, motorcycle, Aeroplane.

3.4      Lead up games : Simple tag games : Cat, Rat , Rhymes  Dodging Ball, Rambo Clap, Tumbling, Rolling, Musical Chair.

3.5      Rules regulation and description of all the minor games.

3.6      A.P Sports school - selection norms

3.6.1 Anthropometric measurements

3.6.2 Medical check up

3.6.3 Physical efficiency test

Practical 2nd year


1. Health – Related Activities

1.1         Calisthenics

1.2         Lazims

1.3         Wand drills

1.4         Dumble exercises

1.5         March past.

1.6         Bharatiyam


2. Learning Skill – Major Games

2.1      Kabaddi

2.2      Kho Kho

2.3      Volley Ball

2.4      Athletics (Throws- Jumps)

2.5      Tennikoit


3. Learning skill – major Games.

3.1      Imitation of animals and related games.

3.2      Lead – up games

3.3      Other recreational games.


Records submission (will be submitted) by each student

1.        Major / Minor games

2.        Diseases / PHC Visit.


Each trainee has to submit record on different diseases like Diabetes, T.B., Asthamas, Cancer, and Leprosy etc.


Sl. No.


No. of periods





Health Education - Meaning, Scope, Need of Health Education

Physical Education -  Meaning, Nature Scope Definition of Physical Education



Health Education - Health Habits, Personal Cleanliness

Physical Education - Aims and Objectives of Physical Education, need for Physical Education, programme Foundation of Physical Education - Seminar on pollution



Health Education - Food - Nutrition and Balanced Diet, communicable diseases

Physical Education - Foundation of Physical Education - Biological, Sociological, Psychological Foundation



Seminar on Diseases, Infection diseases HIV and Life skills



Physical Education - Organization of Intramurals




·         Theory on Yoga

·         Demonstration of Yoga



Physical Education

Major games

Kabaddi, Volley Ball, Kho-Kho, Athletics rules and Regulations, Court making.



Physical Education - Calisthenics


March Past








v  Foundations of Physical Education  - Charles Bucher

v  Health Education - George J.Mouli

v  Rules and Regulation of Games & Sports -  H.C Buck

v  Yoga  - B. Iyanger

v  First Aid  – Bala Krishna

v  Minor Games  - Bala Showri

v  Methods of Physical Education. - Thirunarayan & Harinarayana

v  Vyayama Deepika - Neel Kamal Publishers

v  Track & Field    – Thirunarayana & Hari Narayana

v  Capacity Building Healthy Physical Education - Victory Publication




Part B



The paper will enable the teacher Trainee to ….

  • Make the students understand the nature need and scope of work experience at primary and upper primary level.
  • Acquaint the knowledge on gardening, Health, food, shelter, garment, skill oriented activities.
  • Develop respect for manual work and regard towards manual workers.
  • Develop proper work ethics, such as regularity, punctuality, honesty, dedication, discipline, self reliance, tolerance, helpfulness co-operation, teamwork, preservation, responsibility and commitment to the society.
  • Develop self esteem through achievement in productive work and service.





Part B



Nature -Scope and need of Work Experience at primary and upper primary level. Aims and objectives of Work Experience.

Unit - II - Areas of Work - Experience   

1.1         Gardening

1.2         Health

1.3         Food

1.4         Shelter

1.5         Garments

1.6         Skill oriented activities

§  Gardening

v   Garden management in the institution

v   Campus cleaning  (Clean and Green)

§  Health

v   Organization of Health activities

1.       Health clubs

2.       Health camps 

§  Food

v   Organization of activities on food items preparation and preservation

v   Organizing Food melas

§  Shelter


v   Interior Decorations

v   Preparation of  Cosmetics

1.      Cosmetics

2.      Soap

3.      Washing powder

4.      Phenol

5.      Candles


        Phenol Preparation - 1

        Candle preparation - 1

§  Garments


v   Garments maintenance

1.       According to the season (Summer, Winter, Rainy) etc.

2.       According to the Texture (Cotton, Silk, Wool etc.)

3.       Washing Sari rolling, dry-cleaning

4.       Stitching and garment making

5.       Dying and Printing

6.       Preparation of detergents

§  Skill oriented Activities

v   Book Binding

v   File making

v   Badges (Preparation)

v   Greetings (Preparation)

v   Wall magazines, Posters (Preparation)


Practicum of work experience - 25 marks

1         Work experience record - 15 marks (Consisting all the items from the syllabus)

2         Activities expected to be taken up the institution

2.1         Classroom cleaning

2.2         Institute cleaning

2.3         Gardening

2.4         Decoration

2.5         Participation in melas

        1. Craft

        2. Food

        3. Health

Activities of Work Experience

  1. Leaf Diagram
  2. Finger Diagram
  3. Stick Diagram
  4. Banner work
  5. Parade Song
  6. Fabric Paint Work
  7. Wealth from Waste
  8. Pencil Work
  9. Lace making
  10. Story writing
  11. Decorative Article
  12. Hand kerchief work
  13. A Drama on Health
  14. Country Games
  15. National Games
  16. Calorific values
  17. Dish Variety

Reference Books

v  Work Experience in School Education – NCERT.

v  Exemplar instructional manual for pre-vocational course under work experience - A.K. Sacheti, Project coordinator.

v  A Handbook of puppetry - Meena Naik.

v  Art Education - Exemplar instructional manual - A.K. Sacheti, Project Coordinators.

v  (Chitti) Bodanalo - Bommalata - Pupil Resource center, Andhra Mahila Sabha, O.U. Road, Hyderabad.

v  Chitti - Bommalat - a Pupil Resource center, Andhra Mahila Sabha, O.U. Road, Hyderabad.






The paper will enable the teacher Trainee to ….

§  Make the students understand the nature and scope of Art- Education at Primary level and Upper Primary Level.

§  Make the students know the Indian Culture and Art.

§  Develop the skill of Art in Visual and Performance Arts

§  Develop the concept and skills by using locally available materials, for effective use of classroom teaching

Unit - I

1.1      Nature - Scope and need of Art Education at primary level and upper primary level. Aims and objectives of Art Education

1.2      Knowledge of Indian Culture and Art.

Unit - II

2.1    Kinds of Art and its relation to classroom learning

Visual Arts

Performance Arts

Visual Arts:

1.       Drawing - Pencil, Sketch, Charcoal etc.

2.       Paintings - Water Colours, Oil Paints, Fabric paints, poster colours, natural colour (Kalankari)

3.       Toy making - by using the Cloth, Paper, Waste materials, Clay moulds, puppets etc.

4.       Decorating items - flower making, paper cuttings, bouquet preparations, etc.


Performance Art:

1.       Music

·         Dance

·         One act plays, and Dramas


·         Knowledge of seven notes Raga, Thalas, Pitch, Sruthi etc.

·         Knowledge about different musical instruments Eg: Veena, Violin, Harmonium, Flute, Sannaye, Nadaswaram, Mrudangam, Thabala, Dakki, Dolu etc.

·         Composing and preparing songs for school festivals

·         Singing Rhymes and songs


§     Knowledge of different kinds of dances of our state and country Eg:- Bharathanatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Manipuri, Folk-  Dances etc.


One Act Play or Dramas:

·   Preparation of one act plays for school function Mono action, Mimicry, One Act Play

Unit - III

Ø  Best usage of the waste material for preparing teaching - learning materials       

·         Polythene Bags

·         Saline Bottles

·         Straws

·         Waste Cloth

·         Egg shells etc

Practicum - Art Education.                                                                                                20 marks

Art Education Record - 15 Marks (Consisting all the items of the syllabus)

 Preparing One Exhibit for Craft Mela - 5 Marks

Distribution of units according to the periods allotted for a year



No. of Periods

Comp. Edn.

P.E. & H.E.



Units - Coverage
















Computer Education. -

H.E. & P.E. - Nature & Scope - Health Education, Physical Education

A.E. - Nature and Scope

W.E.- Nature and Scope








Computer Education

Phy. Edn. - Recreational Games

                   Food Nutrition,   

                   Balanced DIET

H.E. & P.E. - Safety Education, Pollution

A.E. - Knowledge of Indian Culture Art

W.E. - Areas of Work experience - Gardening and Health








Computer Education

Phy. Edn. - Major games Kabaddi, Kho-Kho Etc.

H.E. - Communicable diseases

A.E. - Kinds of Art and its relation to class room learning visual arts

W.E. - Food and Shelter








Comp. Edn. - P.E.  & H.E. - Games and Sports practice

A.E. - W.E. -








Comp – Edn.

P.E & H.E - Yoga

A.E. -W.E. – Shelter








Comp – Edn.- P.E & H.E – Yoga

A.E. - performance ArtsW.E. - Skill oriented activities








Comp – Edn.

P.E  - Major Games, Volley Ball, Athletics

H.E. - School Health Programmes

A.E. -Performance Arts

W.E. - Skill Oriented activities








Comp – Edn.

P.E - Modern concept of Phy. Edn.

H.E. - Seminar on Vitamins

A.E. - How best the waste can be used

W.E. - Skill Oriented activities








Com - Revision

P.E & H.E - Revision

A.E. - Revision

W.E. –Revision




















Objectives of the course:

To enable the student teacher to:

§  Develop an understanding of the nature of the objectives of teaching English Language at the Primary/ Upper primary School level.

§  Develop the essential skills of language teaching and become proficient in the use of modern methods, i.e (use of ICT, computers) and learning techniques.

§  Improve command on spoken and written English.

§  Have a good grasp of the syllabus, teaching strategies and teaching material in English for primary/ Upper primary classes.

§  Acquaint with latest reforms in evaluation and to develop latest techniques and tools for testing the achievement of pupils.




1.1          INTRODUCTION

1.1.1          History of English language.

1.1.2          Nature of language.

1.1.3.         Importance of Learning English as a second language in Indian context with special reference to Andhra Pradesh.

1.1.4          Principles of learning the English Language.

1.1.5          English as a Library Language.


1.2.1          Problems of learning the English language in Non- English medium schools.

1.2.2.         Characteristics of Good English teachers (Qualities / Abilities).


                   PRIMARY LEVEL:


3.1         Introduction

3.2          Sounds and symbols

3.3          Syllables

3.4          Stress (word and sentence)

3.5          Intonation

3.6          Rhythm

3.7          Articulation

Practice in:

  1. Phonetic transcription for the words listed in the Readers / Workbooks and in Braille
  2. Minimal pairs.
  3. Tense rule t, d, id.
  4. Plural ending rule.
  5. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation and rhythm in the rhymes and passages for listening.
  6. Developing listening skills by using taped material (Spoken English) prepared by RIE, Bangalore.(Any other relevant material)
  7. Giving exposure to new reading, radio and T.V. lessons.


4.1       Listening

4.1.1      Introduction.

4.1.2      Types of listening.

4.1.3      Activities to develop listening skills.

4.1.4      Rhymes, stories, for listening and comprehension.

4.1.5      Oral presentation - as suggested in the Reader/workbook.

4.1.6      Language games.

4.2                  Speaking

4.2.1      Introduction.

4.2.2.     Activities to develop speaking.

4.2.3      Rhymes.

4.2.4.     Teaching functions / items by using different activities as suggested in the Reader / Work book.   Language for communication.

Practice in                                 

·         Naming familiar objects in the surroundings.

·         Language games (Tongue twisters, riddles).

·         Casual talk, sharing new jokes.

·         Discussion of life-skills.

·         Dialogue chains.


1.            Introduction.

2.             Types of reading - silent reading, reading aloud, intensive reading and extensive reading.

3.             Methods of reading.

4.             Techniques of reading - Skimming and Scanning.

5.             Reading comprehension under reading the lines, reading between the lines, reading beyond the lines and reading with involvement.

6.             Strategies to develop reading - reading newspapers, short stories, comics etc.

7.             Organic reading / Graphic reading.



1.             Introduction

2.             Mechanics of writing - Circles, strokes, curves, small / Capital letters, un-joined / joined letters, words, phrases and sentences

3.             Techniques of developing correct spelling

4.             Qualities of Good Handwriting, Shape, Size, Spacing etc.

5.             Developing good handwriting using the Reader Workbook material.

6.             Organization of writing - Writing short paragraphs using the clues given, using Punctuation, paragraphing etc.

7.             Writing composition - Picture composition, controlled / guided composition 

Communicative Skills


1.             Communication – Meaning and definition.

2.             Principles of good communication

3.             Personality Development through interpersonal and intrapersonal communication

4.             Incorporating values through teaching (Classroom transaction)

Reference skills

Use of Dictionary and Thesaurus


               5.1           Approaches

5.1.1      Introduction - Aural - Oral approach, structural approaches, situational approach and communicative approach.

               5.2           Methods

5.2.1      Introduction (Child-centered / a activity based teaching)

5.2.2.     The grammar translation method, Direct method, and Bilingual methods.

               5.3           Techniques

5.3.1      Introduction

5.3.2      Types (oral presentation and practice, role-play, pair-work, dialogues etc.)

5.3.3          Total physical response - body language

5.3.4    Preparation and use of substitution tables

5.3.5      Language games, tongue - twisters, cross-word, puzzles, riddles, rhymes etc.

5.4          Remedial Teaching

Practical Work

·               Practice of conversation, dialogues, and dramatization

·               Preparation of substitution tables for all the structures prescribed in the Readers

·               Demonstration lessons by lecturer / strong teacher / classroom teacher


6.1          Introduction to Structures.

6.2          Teaching of Structures given in Readers from classes I to VII.

Practical Work:


·         Identifying the structures and preparing the role-plays for the related structures.

·         Types of words (Structural words and content words, synonyms, antonyms,
homonyms and homophones).

·         Types of Vocabulary (Active vocabulary, recognition vocabulary and Adhoc vocabulary).

·         Techniques of teaching vocabulary. 

Practical Work

·         Preparing lists of synonyms and antonyms.

·         Preparing lists of Homonyms and homophones.

6.3              Functional Grammar and Usage

6.3.1        If clause, degrees of comparison, voice, tenses, question tags, direct and indirect speech, correction of common errors etc.

6.3.2.        Use of articles and prepositions


Practical Work

·         Conducting a workshop on preparation and collection of material to teach the elements of grammar suggested in the content

Unit –VII –Teaching Learning Material

7.1          Introduction to T.L.M.

7.2              English Language kit - class wise which contains pictures of flowers, birds, animals, occupations etc., Crayons, Flash-cards, pebbles, toys, small models, masks, puppets etc.

7.3              Match stick diagrams/Black board drawing

7.4              Computer Aided Instruction

7.5              Radio/T.V./ Tape-recorder/Newspaper clippings

7.6              Language laboratory

Practical Work

·                                         Preparation of English Language Kits (Class wise)

·                                         Preparation of Activity packs (Class wise and unit wise)

·                                         Preparation of flash cards, charts, flannel board.

·                                         Collection of Newspaper clippings

·                                         Organizing wall-magazine and learning corners

Unit – VIII – Planning (Regular & special)

8.1              Introduction

8.2              Year Plan

8.3              Unit Plan

8.4              Introduction of micro teaching

8.5              Period Plan

8.6              Teaching of prose, poetry and supplementary Reader

8.7              Preparation of Activity packs


9.1              Introduction

9.2.             Need of a textbook

9.3              Qualities of a good textbook

9.4              ‘Construction of knowledge with reference to NCF-2005’

9.5              Discourse oriented teaching

9.6              ‘Narrative’ as a teaching tool

9.7              Analysis of textbook

Practical Work

·         Textbook analysis / unit analysis

·         Assignment

·         Writing various discourses



10.1        Introduction

10.2            The knowledge of Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

10.3            Tools and techniques of Evaluation

10.4            Types of Evaluation / Tests

10.5            Testing the Language skills (L, S, R, W)

10.6            Designing a scholastic achievement test (SAT) along with Blue-Print

10.7            Weightages, question wise analysis, scoring and Marks key.


Practical Work:

·         Preparation of Test items using different types of questions

·         Preparation of unit test paper and terminal examination paper

·         Writing SAT record

Reference Books

v  Methods of teaching English - By. Sri K. Venu Gopal Rao, Neel Kamal Publications

v  Methods of Teaching English - By Smt Ch. Anne Vijayakumari, New Erraj Publications, Guntur

v  Living English structure for schools   - Longman

v  An Elementary Refresher course      - OUP

v  How to use the Black Board in Teaching English - Longman - David Horbsburgh

v  The teaching of structural words and sentence patterns stages I & II, III & IV (OUP) - by Horns A.S.

v  English as a foreign language - Longman by E.V. Gaten

v  Teaching language as communication (OUP) - by Welwson, H.G.1978.

v  How to increase Reading speed - Sterling Publisher - G.C. Ahuja, Prameela Ahuja

v  Teaching English Grammar - T.R. Publication - Ganesh Bagshi

v  Essentials of English Teaching - Geetha Nagaraju Vinod Pusthak Mandir Agra.

v  English Language teaching   - Orient Longman- R.K. Jain.

v  Principles of teaching English - By  S. Venkateswaram, Vikash publishing house Pvt. Limited

v  Better English pronunciation - Cambridge - O’Connor

v  Every Man’s English Pronouncing Dictionary  - (U.B.S), Daniel Jones

v  Communicative tests of reading and writing English - By Acgomspm Sugan Ramsaran – NCERT


v  Drama -(ELBS) Charlyn Wessels


1. Activity packs (English Language Kit)                                   -                              10 Marks

2. S.A.T. Record                                                                                                -                              15 Marks

3. Project work in teaching practice classes                                         -                                7 Marks

4. Preparation of lesson plan by teacher trainees (7 x 4) -                              24 Marks

5. Lesson observation by Teacher Trainees (5 x 2 )                            -                              10 Marks

    (Two lessons are to be observed, given by school

    Teachers; another three lessons are to be observed;

    Given by co-trainees)

6. Period plans with T.L.M. in internship                                                               

    (7 Periods plans x 4 marks)                      -              28 Marks

                                                                                                                                                                -                              35 Marks

    Action Research                                           -                7 Marks             


7. Final Lessons                                                                                                 -                              20 Marks

8. Action Research in problematic areas

9. Collection of pictures, Photographs, Newspaper clippings etc.

10. Conducting projects on the following Issues:

a.    Analysis of Textbooks (readers) for classes III to VII.

b. Identifying the common errors of the school children in pronunciation / Spelling; and steps to rectify them.

c.     Everyman’s English (Listing out common English words spoken by uneducated people in the society).






Objectives of Teaching Mathematics at D.Ed. Level:

The objectives of teaching Mathematics at D.Ed. Level is to enable the student teachers to

§  State the instructional objectives in-terms of specific behavioral outcomes.

§  Design the teaching strategies to develop Mathematical knowledge, Skills and logical thinking.

§  Prepare, handle and demonstrate the various instructional material.

§  Design and employ suitable activities for catering to individual differences.

§  Construct and use suitable tools of evaluation to measure student learning.

§  Design and transact the child projects in Mathematics.

§  Prepare instructional Planning in Mathematics.

§  Identify the hard spots in the mathematics content at elementary level and device suitable strategies.

§  Identify the common errors committed by pupils and able to prepare suitable remedial measures

§  Organize mathematics club / Laboratory effectively.  




Unit –I : Definition and Nature of Mathematics


1.1  Meaning and nature of mathematics

          1.1.1            Definitions of mathematics (What is mathematics?

             1.1.2         Why mathematics? Nature of Mathematics.

1.2   Historical development of numbers and geometry.   Contributions of Arab, Greek, Egypt, Indian Mathematicians and History of great  Mathematicians  Aryabatta-Bhaskara charya-  Srinivasa Ramanujam – Euclid -  Pythagoras.

1.3   Place of mathematics in school curriculum.

1.4   Meaning of Correlation, Correlation of Mathematics within the different branches of mathematics and with other subjects.

1.5 Latest trends in teaching of mathematics in view of National Curriculum Framework – 2005.

Unit – II - Aims, values and instructional objectives of teaching Mathematics

2.1                  Aims of teaching mathematics at elementary stage.

2.2                    Values of teaching mathematics

2.2.1        Utilitarian 

2.2.2        Disciplinary

2.2.3        Cultural value

2.2.4        Aesthetic

2.2.5        Information value

2.2.6        Preparatory value.

2.3           Objectives of teaching mathematics at Primary level

2.4           Objectives of teaching Mathematics at Upper Primary level

2.5           Characteristics of objectives Instructional objectives of teaching mathematics  (Blooms taxonomy)

2.6           Competencies for classes I to VII


Unit – III - Methods of Teaching Mathematics

3.1       Concept formation in mathematics

3.2          Stages of number development, coordination, ordination and conservation as per Piagets.

3.3          How do children Learn Mathematics? and Readiness programme for learning mathematics

3.4          Inductive and deductive methods

3.5          Analytic and synthetic methods.

3.6          Heuristic method

3.7          Project method

3.8          Problem solving method

3.9          Play way methods.

                        3.9.1   Kindergarten

3.9.2  Montessori

3.10        Activity based method

3.11        Laboratory method.

3.11.1            Micro teaching

3.12        Other activities:

3.12.1            Mental Mathematics

3.12.2            Oral work

3.12.3            Written work (includes verbal problems also)

3.12.4            Drill

3.12.5            Assignments

3.12.6            Means of securing speed and accuracy

3.12.7            Subject based projects at elementary level.

3.12.8            Multi level and Multi grade Teaching in Mathematics

Unit – IV : Instructional material in Mathematics - TLM in Mathematics

4.1          Need of TLM for teaching of Mathematics at Elementary level. 

4.2          Use of block board, grid paper Geo-board and peg board.

4.3.         Preparation of low cost and no cost material, Difference between teaching an interactive material/ Self learning material. 

4.4          Mathematics Kit and its uses (OBB) Mathematics Instruments box

4.5          Developing an activity pack

4.6          Worksheets

4.7          Activity sheets

4.8          Flash Cards

4.9          Concrete material

4.10        Real objects

4.11        Models

4.12        Contents Charts



\Unit – V: Instructional Planning

5.1          Meaning and purpose of year plan, unit plan, period plan and their model plans.

5.2          Unit wise content Analysis, identifying competencies etc.,

5.3.         Observation of class room teaching.


Unit – VI: Designing, Administration, Analysis of scholastic Achievement test (SAT)


            6.1       Preparation of various test items and innovative tools (basing on Activity Approach)

6.2.         One word answer

6.3          Completion type

6.4          True or false

6.5          Multiple choice

6.6          Matching

6.7          Very short answer

6.8          Short answer

6.9          Essay type

6.10        Oral

6.11        Projects

6.12        Sign language/ Gestures methods

6.13        Blue Print (both competency based and Blooms Taxonomy) and Types of tables

6.13.1            Weightage to objectives/ Priority areas

6.13.2            Weightage to content

                6.14        Weightage to types of questions

6.14.1            Weightage to difficulty level in questions

6.14.2            Weightage to time

6.15        Preparation of unit test/terminal examination paper.

6.16        Developing Scholastic achievement test (SAT) record.

6.17        Analysis of test results

6.18        Need and importance of question bank

6.19        Developing question bank

Unit – VII: The Teacher

7.1          Characteristics of mathematics teacher


7.1.1      General qualifications

7.1.2      Professional qualifications.

7.1.3      Qualities of a Mathematics teacher.

7.1.4      Creating interest among children in teaching of Mathematics

7.1.5      Identification of Individual differences in children and designing activities basing on individual differences.

7.1.6      Finding causes for backwardness in Learning mathematics and its remedial measures.

7.1.7      Encouraging gifted children

Unit –VIII - Resource Utilization

8.1          Mathematics library

8.1.1          Need

8.1.2          Organization

8.1.3          Collection of mathematics books and journals.

8.2          Mathematics laboratory

8.2.1              Need and use of mathematics laboratory.

8.2.2              Material in a mathematics laboratory.

8.2.3              Learning to develop Mathematical games.

8.3          Mathematics club

8.3.1              Need

8.3.2              Organization

8.3.3              Activities in mathematics club, viz., finding patterns, magic squares, etc. organizing quiz programmes, metric melas, Maths Olympiads, solving puzzles, riddles, etc.  Celebration of great mathematicians’ birth days and other Mathematical activities.

8.4          Utilization of community Resources in teaching mathematics.

8.4.1  Utilization of human resources example tailor, carpenter, gardener etc.

8.4.2  Utilization of institutional resources.

8.4.3  Bank

8.4.5  Post office

8.4.6  Market etc.

8.5          Visit to places of mathematical importance

Ex:- Forts, places of worship, gardens,  cultural heritage monuments, etc.

8.5.1  Participation in mathematics/ Science fairs.

Unit – IX - Curriculum and Text Book

9.1     Concept of Curriculum

9.1.1      Difference between curriculum and syllabus.   

9.1.2      Principles of curriculum construction in Mathematics

9.1.3      Types of curriculum organization in Mathematics

9.1.4      Concentric and spiral methods of organization of content in mathematic textbooks.

9.1.5      Need and use of Mathematics text book.

9.1.6      Characteristics of a good mathematics text book

9.1.7      Evaluation of mathematics textbook.

9.1.8      Work Book

Unit- X: Content

10.1        Number system

10.1.1    Number, numerals, digits, natural numbers, whole numbers, place value, different kinds of numbers such as odd, even, prime, composite, co-primes and twin primes.

10.1.2    Four basic operations in Mathematics W.R.T. natural numbers.

10.1.3    Verbal problems based on four operations.

                                10.1.4    Multiples and factors of numbers Divisibility Rules of 2,3,4,5,8,9,10,11.

                                10.1.5    Finding L.C.M. and H.C.F. of given Numbers.

                                10.1.6.   Integers, Rational numbers, Irrational and imaginary numbers, number line, Binary to decimal system (conversion).

10.2        Fractions

                10.2.1    Concept of fraction

                10.2.2    Proper, Improper, Mixed fractions

                10.2.3    Four basic operations of fractions, comparison of fractions

                10.2.4    Decimal fractions

                10.2.5    Concept

                        10.2.6                             Comparison

                        10.2.7                         Basic Operations

                        10.2.8 Conversion decimal to common fraction (vice- versa)

10.3        Percentages

10.3.1    Concept

10.3.2    Conversion of percentages to decimal and common fractions and vice-versa

10.3.3    Daily life problems involving percentages

10.4        Arithmetic

10.4.1    Ratio, Proportion (Direct and Indirect proportion) Simple Interest, Unitary method, profit and loss.

10.5        Measurements

10.5.1    Basic concepts related to Length Weight Time Capacity Money

10.6        Area

10.6.1    Area and perimeter of a Rectangle, square, Area of a circle, perimeter of a circle, Area of a sector

10.7        Algebra

10.7.1    Indices, exponents:

10.7.2    Basic concepts - Variable, constant, term, co-efficient, expression, types of    expressions

10.7.3    Numerical and

10.7.4    Algebraic                Polynomial, degree of polynomial, zero of polynomial, Addition and subtraction of polynomial.

                                     Factorization of polynomial, simple equation, simple transformation, special products.

                10.8        Geometry

                10.8.1    Identifies basic ‘3D’ shapes such as cube, cuboids, cylinder, cone, by their names.

                10.8.2    Recognition of 2D shapes like Rectangle, Square, Circle by their names

                10.8.3    Matching 3D objects with 2D shadows

                10.8.4    Description 2D,3D shapes, observation of shapes, corners, surfaces

                10.8.5.   Distinguishing different shapes.

                10.8.6    Interactive idea of a map.  Reads and draws a map.  Basic concepts in Geometry like Point, Angle, Straight line, Ray.

10.9     Properties of Triangles

10.9.1    Types and Properties of quadrilateral.                Tangrams, concept of angle Symmetry, Congruence of figures and congruence of triangle 

10.10     Constructions

10.10.1      Construction of a line segment, circle (Given a point and radius) Perpendicular bisector of a line segment.

10.10.2      Construction of angles using protractor

10.10.3      Angles 600 and 1200 using compass

10.10.4      Angle equal to  a given angle using compass

10.10.5      A line perpendicular to a given line from a point on the line and out side the line Bisection of angle, line segment

10.10.6. Construction of a line parallel to a given line from a point out side it

10.10.7      Construction of a simple triangle like given three sides, given a side and two angles, given two sides and angle between them.

10.11.    Data handling

10.11.1  Collection of 2D Qualitative data

10.11.2  Representation of data in a tabular form

10.11.3                  Construction of a Bar graph, Pictograph to represent the given data

10.11.4  Hypothesis: meaning and concept

10.12.5                  Meaning of data classification, Primary and Secondary organization of data

10.12.6                  Representation of data in-terms of pictographs, Bar graphs on a given scale Interpretation of data.

Practical work:

UNIT - I                

1.       A study on the reflection of mathematical values in the text book.

2.       Discussion on mathematics as tool for the training of mind to be initiated and elaborated.

UNIT - II         

a.      Prepare objectives and specifications for one topic from each class at elementary level.

b.       Determine the minimum competences required after class V  for furtherer study in mathematics

UNIT - III             

a)      List out the competencies topic wise that are to be developed using different methods in one class.

b)      Suggest the appropriate  method for a particular topic of your choice in class V


a)      Prepare two games and two action rhymes to teach addition with total not exceeding 9 for class I

b)      Develop a mathematics kit which is useful to class I teaching.

c)       Develop an activity pack for selected competencies of your choice.

UNIT - V              

a)      Prepare content analysis for one unit in class V  and list out competencies

b)      Prepare appropriate period plans for developing above competencies.


UNIT - VI             

1. Analyze class VII mathematics Terminal examinations paper in view of the following questions:

Question No

Unit Name

Objective - Specification / competency

Question Type

Difficulty level

Marks allotted

Time allotted.









2.  Develop question Banks in mathematics for class IV and class V respectively.

c)       Prepare and conduct a test in number system for class V and identify the mistakes committed by students and prepare suitable remedial activities


1.    Prepare enrichment material for gifted children of class V for a selected topic.

2.    Prepare work sheets for slow learners in class II for the topic “subtraction.”


a)      Conduct metric mela in your practicing school and  find out the reflections of individual children.

b)      Develop suitable puzzles for class III children


  1. Analyze the mathematics text books for classes I / III/ V.
  2. Discuss how the workbooks are helpful   in teaching mathematics for class II children.

UNIT –X              

  1. List out hard spots in a selected topic and selected class and also plan suitable activities for the transaction of those topics.
  2. List out the common errors made by class II pupils in addition and subtraction of two digit numbers.

(c) Practical work in content area:

Number System      

·         Develops games using locally available material, prepares charts on prime numbers and multiples


·         Preparation of chart on  equivalent fractions

·         Preparation of Tactile charts on fraction concepts

·         Preparation of appropriate TLM for students with LD


·         Finds out the percentage of attendance of each teacher trainee in his/her class for one term.


·         Preparation of an exhaustive list of sales discount from daily life situations



·         Developing models such as wall clock, calendar, metric scale, balance, model weights, measuring jars, etc


·         Prepares special product models by using card board / wooden board.


·         Prepares teaching learning material, models of cube, cuboid, cylinder, sphere using clay.

·         Developing Tangrams and designing different Geometrical shapes

·         Data Handling - Collecting different types of graphs from newspapers and interprets them.

Reference books 

v  Bloom, Benjamin S., (Ed.): Taxonomy of Educational objectives, Handbook/ Cognitive domain, Harcourt Baace & World in New York

v  The teaching of Secondary school mathematics (1970): XXXIII year book of NCTM, Washington

v  Boyer, Carl B (1969): A History of Mathematics, Wiley, New York

v  National Curriculum Framework - 2005 (Document published by NCERT)

v  Siddhu K.S. (1990): Teaching of Mathematics, Starling publishers, New Delhi

v  Mangal S.K. (1993): Teaching of mathematics, Arya book Dept., New Delhi 

v  Teaching of Mathematics at  D.Ed students (Telugu Academy)

v  Teaching of Mathematics at B.Ed level.( Telugu Academy)

v  Gruence of triangles


Paper - IX



 This course will enable student teachers to

§    Appreciate the nature of Science, its importance and contribution of various scientists.

§    Understand the aims and values of science

§    Acquire the knowledge of objectives of teaching science.

§    Understand the science curriculum and use and review of science textbook.

§    Under stand and apply various methods of science teaching

§    Develop the competence of preparing year plan, unit plan and period plan

§    Acquire the qualities required for a science teacher.

§    Utilize the available resources in teaching.

§    Organize and participate in science activities

§    Acquire mastery over the development and use of evaluation tools in science.

§    Develop interest, creativity, scientific attitude & scientific temper



Paper – IX





                                1.1          Nature and Scope of Science

1.2          Structure of Science – Syntactic, Process including stretch Methods.  Attitude inquiring. Substantive: Facts, concepts, laws, theories, generalization.

1.3          Historical Development of Science

                                1.3.1      Science - its origin and development

                                1.3.2      Historical background of the Inventions of certain scientists   Thomas Alva Edison   Einstein   Sir C.V. Raman   Louis Pasteur   Gregor John Mendel   Yella Pragada Subba Rao

1.4          Aims and Values of Science



2.1          Objectives of Teaching Science.

2.2          Correlation of Normative Sciences.

2.3          Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

2.4          Competencies in Science (upto class VII).

Unit – III – CURRICULUM                                                                            

3.1          Meaning of Curriculum.

3.2          NCF - 2005 related to Science.

3.2.1      Curricular

3.2.2      Co-curricular

3.3          Syllabus.

3.4          Difference between curriculum and syllabus.

3.5          Recommendations of commissions and committees on curriculum of Science.

3.6          Review of Science Text books



4.1          I. Approaches of teaching Science:

                                                a. Teacher - Centered approach

                                                b. Child - centered approach

                                II. Approaches of Teaching Science

                                .               a. Inductive approach

                                                b. Deductive approach

                4.2          Methods of Teaching Science

4.2.1      Teacher centered

·         Lecture Method

§  Lecture cum Demonstration Method

§  Historical Method

§  Structural method

4.2.2      Child centered Methods

§  Scientific Method

§  Heuristic Method

§  Problem Solving Method

§  Project Method

§  Laboratory Method

§  Assignment Method  

§  Discussion Method

§  Activity based method School based science project.

§  Activity pack

§  Experiments Class wise –I -VII

§  Natural Learning experiences

§  Conversation Method




5.1          Preparation of Year Plan

5.2          Unit Plan

5.3          Period Plan

5.4          Planning for Multi grade and Multilevel Teaching 

5.5          Critical observation of lessons

Unit – VI: SCIENCE TEACHER                                                                      

6.1          Qualities of a Science Teacher

6.2          Role of Science teacher in a primary School as a  

6.2.1      Planner

6.2.2      Organizer

6.2.3      Coordinator

6.2.4      Explorer

6.2.5      Moderator

6.2.6      Guide

6.2.7      Facilitator

6.3          Capacity building of a Science teacher 

Unit - VII –RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SCIENCE TEACHING                                                                       

7.1          Natural, Physical, Community Resources

7.2          Edgar dale Cone of experience

7.3          Definition of TLM – its importance in teaching Learning Process

7.4          Information and Communication Technology

7.4.1              Internet

7.4.2              Website

7.4.3              Radio

7.4.5              Tape recorder

7.4.6              T.V.

7.4.7              Live and Recorded Lessons

7.5          Science Lab

7.6          Improvisation – Development of improvised apparatus

7.7          Primary Science kit and integrated science kit.


8.1          Agriculture science for livelihood

8.1.1      Poultry

8.1.2      Dairy

8.1.3      Pisciculture

8.1.6      Aquaculture

8.1.7      Vermiculture

8.1.8      Hybridization

8.1.9      Genetic engineering preservation techniques

8.1.10    Biotechnology

8.2          Energy

                                8.2.1      Conventional and Non-conventional energy resources

                                8.2.2      Conservation of energy resources

8.3 Population

8.3.1                       Growth of population

8.3.2      Consequences of population explosion

8.3.3      Methods of population control

8.4          Pollution

                                8.4.1      Definition

                                8.4.2      Types of Pollution

                                8.4.3      Causes of Pollution

                                8.4.4      Impact of Pollution on Human life

                                8.4.5      Pollution Control

                                8.4.6      Conservation of environment, Environmental  Acts

8.5              Plantation

                                8.5.1      Importance of Plantation

8.5.2      Social forestry

8.5.3      A forestation

8.5.4      Plant nurseries

8.5.5      School Garden

8.6          Adolescence Education

Growing up stages

8.6.1      Physical development

8.6.2      Primary sexual Characteristics

8.6.3      Secondary sexual Characteristics

8.6.4      STIs – RTIS

8.6.5      AIDs Scenario

8.6.7      International

8.6.8      National

8.7          A.P. State and District variations

8.7.1      Psychological and emotional changes

8.7.2      Drug Abuse

8.7.3      Life skills


9.1          Science Centres

9.2          Science museums

9.3          Science Clubs

9.4          Science fairs

9.5          Field Trips

9.6          Mobile science Lab

9.7          Herbarium

9.8          Vivarium

9.9          Aquarium

9.10        Terrarium

9.11        Planetarium


10.1        Types of test items, Preparation of test items

10.2        Weightage tables

10.3        Preparation of blue Print based on Competency

10.4        Preparation of question bank

10.5        Unit tests

10.6        Analysis of tests and remedies

10.7        Assignments

10.8        Projects


Record may be introduced for this practical work for 20 marks.


Reference Books:-

v  Teaching science in today secondary schools Walter A. Thquber and Alfred t. Collate Modern science teaching R.C. Sharma – Dhampat Rai & Sons Delhi -110006

v  Methodology of teaching science - Siddiqui & Siddiqui, Doaba House, New Delhi

v  Science teaching in schools - RC. Das Sterling publisher Pvt. Ltd

v  Educational evaluation – Theory and Practice – Rambai N. Pael

v  Fundamentals of Education Technology – SK. Mangal

v  New UNESCO source book for science teaching – The UNESCO Press – 1973

v  Science Teachers hand book- C.S. Rao

v  Teaching   Primary Science - B.L. Young

v  Teaching of science (including General Science, Physical Science Biological Science) - N. Bhandula Siddeshwar, Sharma & P.C. Chandha

v   Teaching science in our schools – CPS Nair           – S. Chand & Co., Pvt. Ltd

v  The impact science teaching  - Jooce, well and Howers

v  The teaching of general science in tropical secondary schools – N. N. Saunders

v  What is science- C. Norman – Dover publication

v  Taxonomy of educational objectives - Benjamin S. Bloom

v  Innovations in science and technology education – Davi Loyton

v  Teaching of science teaching – Twess Mac Millan & Co.,

v  Enriched teaching sciences in high schools – Wording M. N.



Paper –X



(A) Objectives of the Course:

  • On exposure to this paper the student teacher will be able to.
  • Understand the nature of EVS and Social Studies.
  • Acquire knowledge related to objectives and values of Teaching Social Studies.
  • Formulate Instructional Objectives, specification / competencies
  • Select suitable methods and teaching learning material required for directing teaching learning process.
  • Understand and utilize electronic media.
  • Develop competences required for instructional planning instructional material and designing test papers.
  • Organize learning activities in the classroom.
  • Conduct surveys and arrange meals, field visits and festivals.
  • Mobilize resources available and adopt in teaching learning process.
  • Take up the review of text books to understand the basic principles of Curriculum construction, identify the core elements and the values incorporated.
  • Create awareness on contemporary issues that are affecting Indian society.



Paper -X



Unit-I - Nature and scope of Social Studies                         

1.1      Meaning, Definition, Nature and Scope of Environmental Studies (EVS) and Social Studies

1.2      Need and importance of EVS with reference to physical and social environment.

1.3      Man's interaction with natural, Physical and Social Environment, Social institutions.

1.4.     Relationship between Social Studies and Social Sciences.

1.5      Philosophical, Psychological and Sociological Reasons for inclusion of Environmental Studies and Social Studies in the school curriculum.

1.6      Social Studies as an integrated subject.

Unit -II - Aims, Objectives and Values of Teaching Social studies                                                             

2.1      Aims, Objectives and values of Teaching Social Studies

2.2      Instructional Objectives of Teaching Social Studies

2.3      Competencies / Learning outcomes class wise upto 7th class.

Unit-III - Methods of Teaching Social Studies                                    

3.1      Instructional procedures - Methods, Techniques and devices

3.1.1  Environment as an approach for teaching Social Studies

3.1.2 Methods of Teaching Social Studies.

3.1.3  Play way methods and activity based approaches

3.1.4  Lecturer method

3.1.5  Discussion and debate

3.1.6  Socialized recitation method

3.1.7  Problem solving method

3.1.8  Project method

3.1.9  Source method

3.1.10 Techniques: Observation, Questioning, Dramatization, Role Play, Simulation, Story Telling, Display & Exhibition, Survey, field trips, Educational games, Songs I Action Songs, Data Collection and Data representation through graphs, tables, charts, maps and cartoons Puppetry.

Unit -IV - Instructional Material                                                               

4.1          Importance of Teaching Learning Material (TLM) in Teaching Learning Process of Social Studies

4.2          Classification of Teaching Learning material - Printed, Visual, Audio, Audiovisual and their usage with reference to social studies.

4.3          Maps: Types of Maps, Map language, Map making Types of charts.

4.4          Types of Graphs

4.5          Models

4.6          Globe Atlas

4.7          Masks

4.8          Album, Scrapbooks

4.9          Social Studies Laboratory

Unit- V - Instructional Planning                                                                                

5.1          Need for Instructional Planning

5.2          Instructional Planning - Year Plan, Unit Plan and Period Plan Lesson Planning - Preparation of Lesson Plans.

5.3          Micro teaching - Preparation of Plans.

5.4          Critical observation of Micro and Macro teaching

Unit-VI - Construction, Administration and Analysis of Scholastic achievements test                    

6.1          Objective based and Competency based testing

6.2          Types of tests and their preparation

6.3          Scholastic achievement test with reference to Blue print, weightages, question wise analysis and marking & scoring key.

6.4          Preparation of Question bank

6.5          Administration, analysis and interpretation of test conducted and drawing inferences.

6.6          Remedial Teaching in Social Studies.

Unit - VII - Social Studies Teacher                                                                           

7.1          Qualities of a Social Studies teacher

7.1.1      Scholarship

7.1.2      Professional Training 0 Human Relations

7.1.3.     Leadership qualities 0 Communicative skills

7.1.4      Mapping Skills

Unit- VIII - Resource Utilization                                                                               

8.1          Significance of Resources and their utilization in Social Studies.

8.2          Types of Resources - natural, Social, Material.

8.3          Methods of utilizing resources - Brining the community resources into the school taking the school to the community.

Unit - IX - Curriculum and Text Book                                                      

9.1          Meaning of Curriculum and Core Curriculum

9.2          The 10 Core Elements of NPE - 86

9.3          Approaches to Curriculum framing - concentric - spiral- Chorological -Topical and Unit approaches

9.4       Curriculum - syllabus - Textbooks, workbook - Hand Book

Unit - X - Content Enrichment material                                              

10.1            Environment concerns:

10.1.1    Weather and Climate

10.1.2    Elements of climate -Temperature and Rainfall.

10.1.3    Climatic conditions in India and AP

10.1.4    Wild Life preservation.

10.1.5    Social Forestry

10.1.6 Disaster Management

10.2            Socio Economic Problems:

10.2.1    Nature, types and factors of social change in historical cultural growth in 19th and 20th century in India

10.2.2    Contemporary and current problems in India perspective of

10.3.           National Identity:

10.3.1    Plurality and evolution of culture and civilization with special reference to India and AP:

10.3.2    Cultural heritage, composite culture.

10.3.3    Freedom struggle in India with special reference to Gandhian Era.

10.3.4    National and Emotional Integration.

10.4        Civic affairs

10.4.1    Salient features of Indian constitution Fundamental Rights and Duties.

10.4.2    National goals and aspirations.

10.4.3    Relationship between Union, State and Local Self Government.

10.4.4    Road Safety Education Consumer Education.

10.4.5    Planned development in India.

10.6        International Relations

10.6.1    UNO - International Peace.

10.6.2    Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

10.6.3    Inter Regional Cooperation (SAARC) - Problems of International Peace

10.6.4    Understanding of peace, Non-Violence, Cooperation and interdependence   among the nations

10.6.5      Role of India in International Peace




(i)           Identify areas related to EVS (Social Studies component) in the syllabus

(ii)         Prescribed for class-I and II of EVS for Primary Stage.

(iii)       Review the textbooks of EVS/Social Studies (I-VII classes) and identify ten core elements and values.

(iv)       Taking -up a study of textbooks of classes III to VII unit wise and identify the approaches of curriculum construction

(v)         Formulate the Instructional objectives with specifications for a particular unit of a class.

(vi)       Taking up class - III/IV /V and identify competencies unit wise.

(vii)     Prepare a year plan for class - III /IV N NINII with the help of the calendar of the year provided.

(viii)   Prepare a period plan duly following steps by taking a unit of a class.

(ix)       Select a theme, prepare a project plan, execute, record and report on anyone of the following themes

1. History of the locality

2. Location and products of an industry

3. Agriculture forming activities throughout the year in an area

4. Any Historical place with cultural importance.

·   Conduct a field trip to study local aspects like

1.  A local fair

2.  Different melas

3.  A Monument, Forts

4.  A Market Place

5.  A river site

6.  Land use in a village

7.  Museum

8. Service institutions etc. and prepare a report, display and discuss with the co-trainees.

(x)         Record weather conditions for a month, analyze and interpret the data in descriptive, tabular and graphical forms.

(xi)       Prepare teaching learning material such as charts, models, puzzles, material for educational games, display and discuss with the co-trainees.

(xii)     Prepare a unit test and analyze the test conducted.

(xiii)   Conduct surveys on anyone of the themes like, crops grow in a village, professions in a village Exports and imports of a village, industries available.

(xiv)   Prepare a report on Vehicles and transportation display and discuss with the co-trainees.

(xv)     Prepare a role play script by selecting anyone of the themes like, postman, doctor and patient, conductor and passenger, policemen, fair price shop dealer etc., and enact with your children and take up feed back.

(xvi)   Prepare a simulation script for conduct of gramasabha of a village and enact with the students of class and take up feed back.

(xvii) Take up a study of a village covering aspects like location map, physical features, climate, rainfall, soils, crops, flora and fauna, population, educational facilities, Human resources exports and imports etc. prepare a report and discuss with your co-trainers.


Reference Books:-

v  The Teaching of Social Studies - S.K. Kochhar

v  Methods of Teaching Social Studies (Telugu Version)- K. Laxmi Narsamma

v  Methods of Teaching Social Studies (Telugu Version ) Telugu academy – Hyderabad

v  Methods of Teaching of Social Studies (Telugu version ) - Daniel and Mallikarjuna Rao

v  The Teaching of Social Studies in India – Yagnik k.s.

v  Source Book for Geography Teaching – Longmans(UNDESCO)

v  Teaching Social Studies V R Teneja

v  Teaching of Social Studies in Indian School-Battacharya  S and Das D P.

v  Teaching Children through the Environment – Pamel Mays: Hodder and Stoughton London

v  Teaching Children through the Environment – NCERT RIE, Bhopal.

v  Hand Books for Teaching EVS – 1 for classes – 1 to V- NCERT

v  UNESCO Hand Book for Teaching Social Studies. Edited by Howard. D & Mehilinger – Oxford Worcester.

v  Teaching of Social Studies- A practical approach    – J.C. Aggarwal- Vikas Publisher – New Delhi

v  Methods of Teaching Social Studies- Prof. Dr. N. B. Reddy Srinivasa pedagogy Centre- Hanamkonda.



v  Sri Boddu. Mohan rao                        (Lecturer in Social Studies)                                                                      


v        B. Ramesh                                       (Lecturer in Maths)


v        D. Venna babu                                 (Lecturer in English)


v        R.Varalakshmi                               (Lecturer in Science)


v        Ch.Venkata lakshmi                       (Lecturer in Telugu)


v         U. Venkata ramana                        (Lecturer in Philosophy)


v         Y.Purna Chandra rao                    (Lecturer in Fine Arts)


v           D.Ramu                                          (Physical Director)


v           K. Govindha raju                             (Librarian)



*       Hari Krishna.                    (Clerk)


*      K.Arlappa                              (Attender)


*      K.Rajamma                           (Sweeper)